THE IDEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF BITCOIN: the unintended, but predicted, convenience of anonymity for criminal activities

Autores

  • Carla Maria de Oliveira Costardi Costardi Policia Federal Universidad Externado de Colombia Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31412/rbcp.v12i4.701

Palavras-chave:

Bitcoin, Cypherpunks, Crime Organizado, Terrorismo, Proteção da Privacidade

Resumo

Bitcoin, a primeira criptomoeda e a primeira aplicação conhecida do Blockchain, está relacionada de perto com o movimento contracultural chamado Cypherpunks. O ativismo dos Cypherpunks, como consta em seu manifesto, foi - e ainda é – dedicado ao desenvolvimento de ferramentas para proporcionar um ambiente onde a privacidade seja protegida. Para eles, privacidade não é sigilo; privacidade é o poder de se revelar seletivamente para o mundo. Bitcoin é um resultado direto dessa aspiração, já que Satoshi Nakamoto – enquanto desenvolvia a Bitcoin – empenhou seus esforços para criar um software que refletisse essa ambição e foi bem sucedido no desenvolvimento de um que, de uma só vez: (i) abrigou a privacidade através do pseudoanonimato, (ii) forneceu um registro público inalterável de todas as transações concluídas com Bitcoin e (iii) desafiou a política monetária estadocêntrica e o sistema bancário tradicional através de uma rede descentralizada de nós operacionais que funcionam como validadores das informações contidas no registro público. Neste artigo, por meio do estabelecimento de relações entre a ideologia Cypherpunk e Bitcoin, eu defendo que a conveniência do uso do Bitcoin em atividades criminosas é, originalmente, um efeito não intencional da ideologia que lastreou o desenvolvimento das criptomoedas mas, provavelmente, um risco colateral que o criador estava disposto a correr.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Carla Maria de Oliveira Costardi Costardi, Policia Federal Universidad Externado de Colombia Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

Delegada de Policia Federal com experiencia em investigação de crimes licitatórios e financeiros. Mestranda em Assuntos Internacionais pela Universidad Externado de Colombia e Doctoranda em Ciências Jurídicas pela Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Referências

ASSANGE, Julian et al. Cypherpunks. New York: OR Books, 2012. Available in: <http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/bibliojaveriana-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4535983>.

BALAJI S. SRINIVASAN. Quantifying Decentralization - news.earn.com. Available in: <https://news.earn.com/quantifying-decentralization-e39db233c28e>.

BARAN, Paul. On Distributed Communications Networks. RAND Corporation. Santa Monica: [s.n.], 1962. Available in: <https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P2626.html.>.

BBC MUNDO. Por qué el Premio Nobel de Economía Joseph Stiglitz cree que se deben prohibir los bitcoins. Available in: <http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-42196322>.

BILTON, Nick. American Kingpin: The Epic Hunt for the Criminal Mastermind Behind the Silk Road. Penguin, 2017.

BLOOMBERG. ¿Qué opinan los premios Nobel de Economía sobre el bitcoin? Available in: <http://www.portafolio.co/economia/ganadores-del-nobel-en-estan-en-desacuerdo-con-el-bitcoin-512239>.

BONNEAU, Joseph et al. SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies. 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy, p. 104-121, 2015. Available in: <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=108862116&site=eds-live>.

BURNISKE, Chris; TATAR, Jack. Cryptoassets : the innovative investor’s guide to bitcoin and beyond. [S.l: s.n.], 2018.

CHRISTINE KIM. The Kodak KashMiner’s Flashy Debut Ends In Failure - CoinDesk. Available in: <https://www.coindesk.com/the-kodak-kashminers-flashy-debut-ends-in-failure>.

COINMARKETCAP. Cryptocurrency Market Capitalizations | CoinMarketCap. Available in: <https://coinmarketcap.com/>.

DANIEL PALMER. Tensions Rising at Facebook Libra as Backers Consider Quitting: Report - CoinDesk. Available in: <https://www.coindesk.com/tensions-rising-at-facebook-libra-as-backers-consider-quitting-report>.

______. Venezuela’s Maduro Orders Top Bank to Make Petro Available to Public - CoinDesk. Available in: <https://www.coindesk.com/venezuelas-maduro-orders-top-bank-to-make-petro-available-to-public>.

DAVIS, Andrew. Joseph Stiglitz: «We should shut down the cryptocurrencies». Available in: <https://www.cnbc.com/2019/05/02/joseph-stiglitz-we-should-shutdown-the-cryptocurrencies.html?__source=twitter%7Cmain>.

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. Digital Currency Business E-Gold Indicted for Money Laundering and Illegal Money Transmitting. Available in: <https://www.justice.gov/archive/opa/pr/2007/April/07_crm_301.html>.

GENCER, Adem Efe et al. Decentralization in Bitcoin and Ethereum Networks. 2018. Available in: <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03998.pdf>.

HAMMILL, Chuck. From Crossbows to cryptography: thwarting the state via technology. Future of Freedom Conference, n. November, p. 1-17, 1987. Available in: <http://libertarianalliance.wordpress.com/2008/05/01/from-crossbows-to-cryptography-thwarting-the-state-via-technology/>.

HEILMAN, Ethan, et al. Eclipse attacks on bitcoin’s peer-to-peer network. 24th {USENIX} Security Symposium ({USENIX} Security 15). 2015.

HUGHES, Eric. A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto - Cypherpunks Mailing List. Available in: <https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/manifesto.html>.

IVAN ON TECH. How to create your OWN cryptocurrency in 15 minutes - Programmer explains - YouTube. Available in: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d5EipPVafsA>.

KARAME, Ghassan; ANDROULAKI, Elli. Bitcoin and Blockchain Security. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2016. Available in: <http://ezproxy.javeriana.edu.co:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xww&AN=1511848&lang=es&site=eds-live>. (Artech House Information Security and Privacy Series).

KHARIF, Olga. Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto? McAfee Vows to Unmask Bitcoin Creator - Bloomberg. Available in: <https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-04-23/john-mcafee-vows-to-unmask-crypto-s-satoshi-nakamoto-within-days>.

KINSEY, Dave. The Blockchain Code: Decrypt the Jungle of Complexity to Win the Crypto-Anarchy Game. [S.l.]: Modern Expert, LLC, 2019.

LACSON, Wesley, and Beata Jones. The 21st Century DarkNet Market: Lessons from the Fall of Silk Road. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 10.1 (2016).

MAY, Timothy. Thirty Years of Crypto Anarchy at 3rd Hackers Congress Paralelní Polis. Youtube. Prague: [s.n.]. Available in: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdmpAy1hI8g&list=PLGJQS0h-wqLQ5RLCnOkT0Vi9KSzcyyBgO&index=4>. , 2016

MCCUBBIN, Gregory. Code Your Own Cryptocurrency on Ethereum (How to Build an ERC-20 Token and Crowd Sale website) | Dapp University. Available in: <https://www.dappuniversity.com/articles/code-your-own-cryptocurrency-on-ethereum>.

MODY, Seema. Creating your own cryptocurrency? Here’s what you need to know. Available in: <https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/09/creating-your-own-cryptocurrency-heres-what-you-need-to-know.html>.

NAKAMOTO, Satoshi. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. . [S.l: s.n.], 2008a. Available in: .

______. Bitcoin open source implementation of P2P currency. Available in: <http://p2pfoundation.ning.com/forum/topics/bitcoin-open-source>.

______. Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper. Available in: <http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.encryption.general/12588/>.

______. Re: Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper. Available in: <https://www.mail-archive.com/cryptography@metzdowd.com/msg09971.html>.

NARAYANAN, Arvind et al. Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies Introduction to the book. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2016. Available in: <https://d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf>.

NARAYANAN, B Y Arvind; CLARK, Jeremy; HAVE, I F Y O U. Bitcoin ’ s Academic Pedigree. Communications of the ACM, v. 60, n. 12, p. 36-45, 2017.

ORCUTT, Mike. Bitcoin and Ethereum have a hidden power structure, and it’s just been revealed - MIT Technology Review. MIT Technology Review, p. 2-5, 2018. Available in: <https://www.technologyreview.com/s/610018/bitcoin-and-ethereum-have-a-hidden-power-structure-and-its-just-been-revealed/>.

POON, Joseph; DRYJA, Thaddeus. The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments. . [S.l: s.n.], 2016. Available in: <https://www.bitcoinlightning.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/lightning-network-paper.pdf>.

RAND CORPORATION. Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet | RAND. Available in: <https://www.rand.org/about/history/baran.html>.

SCHUIL, Frank. Why Satoshi Nakamoto’s Identity Matters - CoinDesk. Available in: <https://www.coindesk.com/why-matters-satoshi-nakamoto>.

SIMMONS, Matty. THE DAY CASH DIED. Saturday Evening Post. [S.l: s.n.]. Available in: <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=113413622&site=eds-live>. , 2016

VILNER, Yoav. Can The Real Satoshi Nakamoto (Or Craig Wright) Please Stand Up? Available in: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/yoavvilner/2019/05/30/can-the-real-satoshi-nakamoto-or-craig-wright-please-stand-up/#ff4e9d51fcf4>.

WEISER, Benjamin. Ross Ulbricht, creator of Silk Road website, is sentenced to life in prison. New York Times (2015). Available in < https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/30/nyregion/ross-ulbricht-creator-of-silk-road-website-is-sentenced-to-life-in-prison.html>.

WIKIPEDIA. Darknet. Available in: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darknet>.

ZETTER, Kim. Bullion and Bandits: The Improbable Rise and Fall of E-Gold | WIRED. Wired, 2009. Available in: <https://www.wired.com/2009/06/e-gold/>.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-01-26

Como Citar

COSTARDI, C. M. de O. C. THE IDEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF BITCOIN: the unintended, but predicted, convenience of anonymity for criminal activities. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Policiais, [S. l.], v. 12, n. 4, p. 75-99, 2021. DOI: 10.31412/rbcp.v12i4.701. Disponível em: https://periodicos.pf.gov.br:443/index.php/RBCP/article/view/701. Acesso em: 17 maio. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Artigos