Determinação da origem geográfica de vestígios utilizando isótopos estáveis: base científica e potencial de uso no Brasil

Fábio José Viana Costa, João Paulo Sena-Souza, Gabriela Bielefeld Nardoto

Resumo


As ciências forenses baseiam-se na análise técnico-científica dos vestígios de crimes. A utilização de isótopos estáveis para determinação da origem geográfica de vestígios (atribuição isotópica) já é realizada em diversas partes do mundo e em variados contextos forenses. No presente artigo são apresentados os princípios biogeoquímicos e as metodologias utilizadas para atribuir amostras desconhecidas à sua origem geográfica utilizando isótopos estáveis. A aplicabilidade da ferramenta no contexto forense no Brasil é discutida para os seguintes vestígios: animais traficados, remanescentes humanos, madeira ilegal, drogas apreendidas e alimentos fraudados. Os modelos globais existentes podem ser aplicados no Brasil, sendo úteis para esclarecer algumas questões mais abrangentes. Para questões mais específicas recomenda-se utilizar as variáveis ambientais associadas aos dados isotópicos já existentes construindo isoscapes regionais específicas. Com a disponibilização dessas isoscapes, a metodologia de atribuição isotópica explicada neste artigo poderá ser amplamente explorada e resultar em modelos espaciais possíveis de serem aplicados especificamente no contexto forense brasileiro.


Palavras-chave


análise multi-isotópica, ciências forenses, perícia criminal, análise espacial, atribuição isotópica, tráfico de animais, desmatamento ilegal, pessoas desaparecidas, tráfico de drogas, alimentos adulterados

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31412%2Frbcp.v10i1.585

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